How is a Passive House constructed?

The following elements must be integrated when building a Passive House:
  • Very good heat insulation.
  • A U-factor that does not exceed 0.15 W/(m²K)
  • Energy-efficient windows.
  • South orientation as solar energy is a significant factor.
  • A ventilation system with a heat exchanger for heat recovery from exhaust air.
  • A passive system for preheating of fresh air.
Performance characteristics of a Passive House:
  1. Airtight building shell ≤ 0.6 ACH @ 50 P pressure, measured by blower-door test
  2. Annual heat requirement ≤ 15 kWh/m² per annum
  3. Primary Energy ≤ 120 kWh/m² per annum 
In addition, the following are recommendations, varying with climate:
  1. Window U-value ≤ 0.85 W/(m²K)
  2. U-value of roof, wall and floor construction ≤ 0.15 W/(m²K)  (K15)
  3. Ventilation system with heat recovery with ≥ 75% efficiency with low electric consumption @ 0,45 Wh/m³ (E45)
  4. Thermal Bridge Free Construction ≤ 0.01 W/(mK) 
Norm: K15 and E45 (or lower)
A Passive House would have a total energy demand for space heating and cooling of air-conditioned area of about 1 to 3 kW/m² per annum (or an average energy demand of 100-200 € per annum).

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